The Colle Landone and the Baglioni’s area
The city of Perugia rises on a hill to two heights: one to north (493 meters s.l.m.) called Colle del Sole and the other to south, little more lowland, said Colle Landone. Enclosed both inside of the town-walls Etruscan building, constituted more ancient living condition in this area of the city. The Colle Landone, until the half of XVI century, was inhabited from the rich families of Perugia, re-united in clique or small nucleus inhabited to you. The family name of the more important, for social position and numerical entity, was that one of the Baglioni. The dwellings that rose on the hill were worthy of the wealthy conditions of the own inhabitants. The Colle Landone has been completely transformed - from 1540 - with the construction of the Rocca Paolina and its panorama is observable only from little pictorials testimonies. The fresco executed from Benedetto Bonfigli (Perugia 1410-1496) for the nail head of the Priori and dedicated to besiege of Perugia offers, in rather realistic way, the profile of this part of city.
| || The medieval panorama is that, with rooms on little plans, churches with roof to hut and small bell towers; the city appears with towers. Nearly all came low-spirited, on the Pope, in order not to surpass the Rocca Paolina.|
Among the medieval buildings it opened the little square of the Baglioni, from where a road departed that he directed toward the superior part of the church of Sant'Ercolano, constructed to horse between the XIII and XIV the century, and an other one that it reached until the old street how arrive to the city, called “il calzo di Sant’Ercolano, through the Porta Marzia (photo). Along this distance the house of Braccio and Ridolfo Baglioni and that one of Kind Baglioni extended.
| ||The two isolate were form from buildings of several ages: the families, in fact, had widened in the course of the years their possessions with purchases and structural modifications of the rooms, of the shops and other spaces. The gentleman resided on the top of the hill, while the tiny people lived for more close to the ancient wall.|
The war of the salt
It’s famous the importance of salt to the antiquity for its multiple uses (conservation of foods, alimentary use, rituality symbolic-religious). To case many people did not use it like currency; its production and its commerce were object of many deal and regulations to you.
Perugia could buy knows them from anyone in a virtue of a treaty concluded in 1431, and in it built from the Siena to three moneies the pound. When, to the beginning of year 1540, Paul III imposed to acquire salt them from papal’s salt flats at the price of six moneies the pound, all understood that this gesture did not want to only reaffirm the papal authority on the city, but that the doubling of the price of salt would have had them heaviest economic repercussions on it and on all the peasantry. The embitterment was justified, according to the papacy, from expenses that the apostolic office had to support for the fight against the heretical ones, the Lutheran sect and the Turks, but the people of Perugia they thought it very various. According to they the official Papal letter was motivated only from the enormous sums of which the Pope it had to decide in order to maintain the court and to pay subsidies to the emperor Carl V. To Perugia attempted to avoid obstacle eliminating really salt them from the production of the bread and starting of the negotiations with the papal autority. Landing to no agreement and in March the people of Perugia they did not name 25 citizen, “defending of justice of the city” in charge to govern and to organize the resistance to the Pope.
The assignment immediately appeared arduous, lacked moreover a leader to which to entrust the military resistance; on looked for the solidarity of the cities near Perugia, without not obtaining it, and the aid of the Baglioni survivors. And it was the war.
In April, approximating the papal troops, Perugia with a solemn ceremony built a wooden crucifix on the door of the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo - still today visible – and symbolically it was placed under its protection, delivering him the keys of the city.
In May Ridolfo Baglioni reentered in city and his arrival it turned on the minds of the citizens but in the same days the papal army, to the command of Pierluigi Farnese, it began the first skirmishes with the citizen The first days of June were dramatic. The people of Perugia saw the city in flames, and I disenchanted, they exhorted Ridolfo to treat the accord.
The meeting among the two parts happened June 3 rd 1540 in the monastery of Monteluce (photo) and concluded him with the accord that Ridolfo and its troops would have left the city while the Farnese would have made you entry "preserving the state of it before the war, the life of everybody and the honor of the women."
On June 5, with the entry of Pierluigi Farnese, the city lost the dominion on the area.
To the place of the Prior winds were elected "Conservatori dell’ ecclesiastica obedienza" and Perugia definitely lost the last rests of his independence.
In a climate of dismay and fear the repentance of the city happened, that on June 25 sent near the Pope twenty-five ambassadorial to ask the forgiveness.
The authorities pontificies granted him with the architect Antonio da Sangallo the Young (Florence 1484 - Terni 1546) one - belonging to the school “bramantesca” in Rome - for the project of a building strengthened on the area of the Colle Landone, Monsignor della Barba , governor of the city and assumed the full powers, the city closed and it persecuted the Twenty-five, forcing besides really the citizen to demolish their residences.
The strengthened building
The War of the salt has assumed them in the tradition the meant one of “glorious rebellion” of the citizenship against the Pope, meant that gone over the real historical capacity of the events.
The war was certainly the immediate cause that brought to the construction of the Fortress Paolina but not the alone.
Already from 1537, you dispossess the houses of the Baglionis, the Pope had thought for the first time to build on that area a military garrison, submitting the planning of it to the colonel Pier Francis Fiorenzuoli from Viterbo.
You hypothesizes that the reasons derived from the double necessity to form an inside (of which Perugia would have been a key point) defensive net, and to bring back the city under the forehand pontifical government.
The political and military programs of Pierluigi and Ottavio Farnese transformed the original idea of the fort in a plan of fortified palace that it included, without to destroy them, the houses of the Baglioni, in order to become presumably representative centre of one new lordship. According to recent interpretations, the plan begins them, entrusted to Antonio from Sangallo, translate in the outlines of the military architecture of the age the twofold requirement and of palace strongly fortified.
The definitive plan, in fact, previewed the edification of two elements:
- the fortress, true and own it would be risen to goes them,
towards them walls of Santa Giuliana, becoming the true fortress to defense of the city from eventual external attacks;
- the fortified palace would be risen on the top of the Colle Landone and would have incorporated the houses of the Baglioni in order to assert the Pope on the citizenship and to destroy the Baglioni.
The demolition of the quarter
June 28 th 1540 they were begun to demolish the first buildings delimiting the perimeter of the fortitude with holes and threads.
In August, a provision ordered the Twenty-five houses demolition to work of all the citizen, which owed improvise him "pioneers" and to demolish the houses of the "heads."
The provision wanted to punish, in exemplary way and with repercussions on the whole population, who was opposite to the papal wish.
The jobs of demolition proceeded without truce among the pain and the dismay of the citizens that you/they were seen, day after day, private of buildings among the most beautiful and representative of the city
All owed participate in the jobs even if, to the beginning, the greatest sacrifices were in demand to the farmers Pioneers and laborers arrived from the whole the area to dig the pit of the citadel, to demolish the houses that were in his/her perimeter, to transport the lumber and the whole material of demolition without receiving some salary or food.
On November 8, with a pompous ceremony presided from Lord of the Beard, the first stone was set.
The material of demolition came used in the construction of the citadel, but being the so great and big boundaries the builders they realized well soon not to have to sufficiency of it.
They were emanates new bands to you in order to confiscate bricks and lime, and in order to requisite the beasts of burden. Also the city had to actively participate in the construction with the performance of work or the payment of sums of money.
Monsignor della Barba, in the respect of such principle, and personally to carry “the stretchers” (wheelbarrows) in the yards and the example was allowed from doctors, gentlemans,citizens.
The end of the year 1541 Sangallo thought completed its work nearly (thought already next to the written one to put on the door of the new fortified palace), but the job suffered clearly a change that of alter the nature. A clear acquaintance of the vicissitudes does not have itself, because the reporters of the age has not told on the reasons of the variations. But a reaffirmation of the papal power was certainly wanted on the rebellious city.
Indifference was originated to change some political conditions that a center of representation of the Farneses didn't make more necessary to Perugia, but only the realization of a strong soldier.
The construction had to be organized on the two nucleus already starts to you:
- the low part, that one that had to be the true fort and just (for years to continue to call mastio) became the “tenaglia”, with reduced and various dimensions a lot regarding the original plan;
- the principal building assumed a quadrangular form with to the centre the mastio of the fortitude.
The heights of the boundaries were considerably increased and a lot of areas, preserved by Sangallo, they had been being covered for strong times.
The anticipated nine doors of access were closed leaving only along the principal façade one of it.
The Porta Marzia was gotten off and his arc walled on the bastion of east.
In the 1542 Anthonio da Sangallo it estranged from the city in polemic with how much they had altered the nature of his project.
In March of the same year it reached Perugia the new Cardinal pontifical legacy of Rimini.
Numerous other characters, above all military, they alternated him to the guide of the jobs: to the architect perugino Galeazzo Alessi (1512-1572) was given the charge to systematize the residential part
adapting know them of the palace of Baglioni, completing the apartments to them
of the castellan and constructing one lodge.
The demolitions continue
The realization of the structure, redrawn according to the will of the planners of the Pope, it determined remarkable losses of architectural patrimony in the city more and more directly reaching not also the demolition of the situated buildings in the areas interested by the fortitude For the construction of the work the religious buildings were not even saved: the church of St. Cataldo, the monastery of Saint Maria of the Virgo, the parishes of St. Paul, St. Silvestre, Saint Lucy,St Martin.
The city was seen deprived of a lot of towers; Giulio di Costantino always annotated the loss of 26 of them.
The destruction didn't end shortly time and shows it the fact that in 1543 the church of Saint Maria of the Servants and Etruscan door of the Sun was demolished.
in 1545 it was orderly the demolition of the bell tower of St. Domenico (you see photo) since it hindered the draught of the guns of which fortitude was gifted, and and moreover, from its top they could be carried out of the controls to the inside of it.
The boundaries of the bell tower were so solid that in a day hardly every pioneer, with notable effort, he succeeded in removing four or five stones.
The jobs were suspended with the death of the Pope and, since then, the bell tower has remained with the form that is seen today still, cut of the point.
Also the church of Sant'Ercolano suffered a similar fate: the superior part was destroyed because its position hindered the control on the valley.
THE ROCCA PAOLINA
In the short space less than 3 years the fortress Paolina could tell completed. Localized in that beautiful part of City that was the Colle Landone, it occupied an area much immense one. Although that remains some today is only one minimal part of the ancient construction, from old press and designs the imposingness, of this work is testified, always hated from the people of Perugia.
Said fortitude properly rose where now Italy plaza is found and he was directed about as the today's building of the Province, with a quadrangular form vaguely.
To sides of the main prospect they had been placed two bastions of defense that watched the public Piazza Grande (actually P. IV Novembre) and Piazza Piccola (now P. Matteotti). Between the two bastions the mastio was placed surmount from three great merlons; in that median one the auction for the flag was placed. The mastio it had a hostile and strict aspect. In the high part of the facade a niche contained the statue in terracotta and natural dimensions of seated Paul III, in the action to bless more low five coats of arms in marble, carved from Simone Mosca da Settignano and Ludovico da Orvieto, adorned large principle door.
The fortress had all around to the perimeter a deep ditch and the income door was equipped of a protect bridge levatoio from a rivellino. From the bastion of left (turned towards the Piazza Grandw) a wall was spread that arrived to the placing bastion of and the door of the Aid, from where, little more ahead, it began the runner of the fortress.
The runner and the pincer
The runner was along beyond 100 meters constructed on three plans. worked like a casemate with covered communication trenches that ran along the first one and according to plan. On it walls lateral opened embrasures that served like base of support for the light artillery; the advanced, uncovered plan, was protect to two sides from parapets. It connected the main nucleus of the Rocca to the secondary element, called “pincer” or “scissor”. This was elevated outside from walls medieval of the city, where today it is the public square of the Partigiani and it was opened of forehead to the church of Santa Giuliana. The facade was introduced with two sturdy bastions that support one curtain having to the center one door bulwark, but easy to pull down. It walls of the runner were combined to the Levant bastion, where it had been bulwark the Porta Marzia with its ornaments. The curtain was spread until the bastion of placing of the fortress (turned towards the Piazza Piccola).
Crossed the income door, through one it knows it destined to the guard was approached to a squared, said “della Stella”, adorned courtyard from twelve arched and pedestals in dorico style In this space were placed the statues of Saint Peter and Paul, carved from Ludovico Scalza di Orvieto. In bottom to the courtyard,
an entrance hall concurred the access with the various parts of the fortress. On the right the barracks of the soldiers were placed; the larger dormitory was painted with frescoes representing made mythologyc facts and papal coats of arms. To the centre along corridor it lead to one discovered public square.
On the left the palace of the Castellano rose that incorporated a part of knows them was of the magnificent Palace of Kind Baglioni. rebuilt according to the design of Galeazzo Alessi in order to accommodate with every comfort Paul III and its grandsons in they stays in city. The building hanged over the last feature of the wall of the fortress place to Levant and was framed from a loggia with five arched supported from pillars in oriented dorico style towards it goes them tiberina valley. The palace inner was enriched from elegant doors and fireplaces finishing touch with edges in serene stone carve to you from Simone Mosca
and contained ancient paintings attributed to Cristoforo Gherardi,
Vasari, Lattanzio della Marca, Raffaellino del Colle and Adone Doni. Beside the palace a private nail head, adorned from frescoes, invited to the prayer the illustrious hosts. The pavements were are covered from maioliche that reproduced floreali arabesques, reasons, coats of arms of the Church and Paul III.
The city rebelled
The fortress Paolina was for Perugia’s citizen the symbol of injustice and sacrifices, even if it never did not exercise its function; in fact the garrisons of soldiers remained always inactive to its inside, much
to be nicknamed “the guards of the smoke”. It was expectable that to first tried you of revolt against the papal government it became the main target. When in France the democracy was asserted and through the napoleonic crews it reached in Europe and Italy, Perugia was rebelled throwing in the ditch of the Rocca the statue of Paul III, cancelling the registrations and damaging the coats of arms that embellished the mastio
(February 1798). Other years had to pass for the true and own demolition. In 1800 Rivarola cardinal it made to overwhelm the ditch in front of the mastio, forming a great public square that taken its name (now Piazza Italia ). In the 1805 they came you execute jobs of restoration of the fortress and continued the operation of overwhelm of the ditches, in order to make space to new ways of access the city, that in spite of the Rocca
turned out in state of abandonment and the surrounding area had the aspect of one public rubbish dump. In that years it was built behind the runner (on the western side) a vast circus destined to the game of the ball, a lot of show in fashion.
The circus was adorned by 59 elegant arcs that leaned on pillars gild us. Three arcs were used as you go out and the others as loggias that were ownership of the most important Perugia’s families.
The dismantlement of the fortress
When Pious IX, lost once the popularity, he was seen forced to call to the government democratic ministers and to run away from Rome, the popular Circle of Perugia asked to the Office of the Weapons to be able to demolish the fortitude, and it put again the decision to the wish of the Town. The advisers, summoned of urgency December 11 th 1848, they deliberated the destruction of the mastio and the ramparts.
On December 13, to the presence of the authorities and a great crowd, the work of destruction started. The jobs frantically proceeded and to make soon mines they were used. The historian Luigi Bonazzi (Perugia, 1811-1879) wrote that the explosion of one of them determined the throwing of big rocks until to arrive to Via Nuova (actual Via Mazzini), killing and hurting quite a lot people, and he commented: also after 308 years the Farnese took revenge of us!.
The demolition entirely struck the building of the Castellano, the chapel and the bastions, big part of the curtain, almost entirely the mastio and the loggia dorica; the runner and the pliers were saved instead. Internally the staving in of big part of the times was had. It was in this phase that the rooms of the buildings of the Baglioni definitely lost him that had been incorporated in the Fortress.
In June of 1849, with the restoration of the pontifical government, they stopped the demolitions. The captain of the pontifical Genius Costantino Forti was sent in the city with the charge to rearrange the building.
In 1854 it set out the realization of a strengthened barracks. The demolished parts were rebuilt and raise again the external boundaries making to almost assume to the building the ancient profile. From the undergrounds mighty rectangular pylons were raised for sustaining the new structure above.
September 14 th 1860 the Fortress acquitted the extreme assignment to defend the Pontifical State. Invested from more sides from the Piemontese army after three hours of tireless fight and shots of artilleries from both the parts, capitulated. The Swiss garrison, left the fortitude that was occupied by general Manfredo Fanti.
Perugia after unit’s of Italy
Perugia was annexed to the Kingdom of ltalia and the fortitude it passed from the Italian Government to the Town hall of the city. The decree of October 15 th 1860 emanated by the marquis Gioacchino Napoleone Pepoli, Regal extraordinary general commissioner, said besides: the Fortitude is given in free ownership to the Commune.
The town council of Perugia wanted that the decree was turned into notarial act, with the purpose to give to it full execution. At 2 pm of the 14 of November 10 th 1860 the notary town petitioner Giacomo Antonini, the representative deputies of the provisional (the nobleman Baron Nicola Danzetta and doctor Raffaele Giamboni) town Committee and the marquis Pepoli in representation of Vittorio Emanuele II, went him to the fortitude Paolina to take possession of it. Entering from Porta Marzia they were started walk along the Via Bagliona, were introduced in several the premises and they did not meet opposition of some.
With this act the town authority of Perugia held to have gotten the full and legitimate possession of the Fortress. December 17 th 1860 the council town authorized it proposing however that some spaces were safeguarded and destined to stores. It was also bandit a contest for the execution of projects of put in order of the area occupied by the fortitude. Despite the indications they proceeded without a well precise plan: the remaining part of the mastio and the runner were shot down; ; many deposits were thrown in the undergrounds of the fortitude. The demolition of the pliers was submitted to Brazzola’s enterprise, entrusted also of the construction of the new jails. Gives the proximity, for this new structure the enterprise used partly the rubbles of the Fortress.
For the whole decade in the city he worked to the demolitions and him discussed on the hypotheses of tidy the area without reaching a definitive result. In the meantime the zone was left in state of desolating abandonment. In 1867 it finally came approved a project of setup taken care of by Alexander Arienti, engineer town head.
In the space of the ex fortitude the building of the Government (1870) was built - actual building of the Province, centre of the Prefecture and the provincial administration - and created the gardens Carducci; the construction of private buildings was authorized and a new road (avenue Independence) was open, closing so a long chapter of the urbanistic history of Perugia
The recovery of the fortress Rocca Paolina.
In 1931 the Commune of Perugia began the jobs of recovery of some inside spaces of the Fortress, under the direction of architect Pietro Angelini. The street Bagliona was reactivated up to the crossroad, the ramp up to the door of the Soccorso and you restore the two gunboats of east.
The jobs had brief duration; for over 30 years any activity was more undertaken and the recovered spaces came in wide part used what stores of the Commune. In the years '50 the environment in two aisles, the adjoining cells and the inside corridor they were suited for reservoirs of drinkable water for the city, without too worries on the possible damages that these environments, among the little ones saved by the nineteenth-century demolitions, they would have suffered.
In the 1963 autonomous enterprise of care, stay and tourism of Perugia it opened a new phase of jobs under the guide of the president Ottorino Gurrieri. A vast area of the fortitude was freed by the deposits bringing the underground environments of the medieval suburb to the light. The engineer Sisto Mastrodicasa (pioneer of the structural restauration of the buildings) occupied him of the consolidation and of the remaking of the plan of stamping of the gardens Carducci. The space was reduced destined to reservoir of water recovering the cells and the inside corridor. In April 1965 fortitude returned to be open to the public. In the years 1970-71 jobs were effected in the area today turned to diurnal hotel, that then entertained the ice cells town.
In the 1976 other jobs, driven by the surveyor Carlo Ciangottini, they brought two buildings of the medieval suburb to the light, one in proximity of the houses of Kind Baglioni and one, to three floors, overlooking the crossroad. Among 1980 and 1983 the Commune and the Province of Perugia have almost all made fit for use the remaining part of the sots with the realization of the mechanized pedestrian distance and the
Espositivo Center (you see photo).
Consequently it has been built under the plaza of the Circus a new water reservoir, in substitution of that result in the inside saloon to the Fortress. Other surfaces remain still to bring to the light: beyond the passage medieval place to the left of the last ramp of mobile staircases they must be found the vain ones of the bastion of west - probably the gunboats - whose turned they have gone destroyed during the nineteenth-century demolitions.
Under Largo Libertà burrows exist and vain, to a large extent unexplored and obstructed. The extreme point of the spur of northwest is visible in the undergrounds of the building of the Bank of ltalia and an edge of the same it has been brought to the light during jobs undertaken in Piazza Italia in the summer of 1994. Equally unexplored it is the underlying level the two gunboats of east.